Listed as Near Threatened as the current global population is estimated to number ~13,000 mature individuals, and is thought likely to experience a continuing decline nearing 10% over the coming decade largely as a result of ongoing habitat loss and degradation, road kills and other threats (see Paula et al. 2008). Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion C.
A population and habitat viability assessment workshop held in 2005 estimated the total population of Maned Wolves at ~23,600 animals, including 21,746 in Brazil, 880 in Argentina, and 660 in Argentina (Paula et al. 2008). Numbers in Bolivia are unlikely to exceed 1000 animals. With their primarily solitary habits and large home ranges, Maned Wolves are found in low densities throughout the range.
Population trend: Unknown
Habitat and Ecology: Maned Wolves favour tall grasslands, shrub
habitats, woodland with an open canopy (cerrado), and wet fields (which may be
seasonally flooded). Some evidence indicates that they may prefer areas with low
to medium shrub density (Bestelmeyer 2000). Maned Wolves are also seen in lands
under cultivation for agriculture and pasture. Daytime resting areas include
gallery forests (Dietz 1984), cerrado and marshy areas near rivers (Bestelmeyer
2000; F. Rodrigues unpubl.). There is some evidence that they can utilize
cultivated land for hunting and resting (A. Jácomo and L. Silveira, unpubl.),
but additional studies are essential in order to quantify how well the species
tolerates intensive agricultural activity.
Omnivorous, consuming principally fruits and small- to medium-sized vertebrates. Numerous authors (Dietz 1984; Carvalho and Vasconcellos 1995; Motta-Júnior et al. 1996; Azevedo and Gastal 1997; Motta-Júnior 1997; Rodrigues et al. 1998; Jácomo 1999; Santos 1999; Silveira 1999; Juarez and Marinho 2002; F. Rodrigues unpubl.) have investigated the diet of the Maned Wolf. These studies have all found a wide variety of plant and animal material in the diet, with about 50% of the diet comprising plant material and 50% animal matter. The fruit Solanum lycocarpum grows throughout much of the range and is a primary food source; other important items include small mammals (Caviidae, Muridae, Echimydae) and armadillos, other fruits (Annonaceae, Myrtaceae, Palmae, Bromeliaceae and others), birds (Tinamidae, Emberizidae and others), reptiles and arthropods. Although the frequency of plant and animal items found in faecal samples is approximately equal, the biomass of animal items is usually greater than that of plant items (Motta-Júnior et al. 1996; Santos 1999; F. Rodrigues unpubl.). Certain items, such as rodents and Solanum, are consumed year round, but the diet varies with food availability. At least occasionally, pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) are also consumed (Bestelmeyer and Westbrook 1998). In Jácomo's (1999) study, deer appeared in 2.4% of 1,673 samples analysed.
French: loupà crinière; German: mähnenwolf; Portuguese: lobo guará, guará; Spanish: aguará guazú (Argentina), lobo de crin, borochi (Bolivia)